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父与子:活火山一样的爱

倾城英语2018-09-13 15:19:05

主持人:张蒙多





爱文字爱生活的翻译一枚,读书破万卷乃人生终极目标。阅读上至阳春白雪,下至下里巴人,均有涉猎,对如何从他人的作品中萃取精华,学为己用,有独到的方法。






栏目介绍





美文如繁花,渐欲迷我眼,花魁何处问?尽在“撩美文”。这里有最夯的文章播报;最怀旧的古文经典;最地气的编辑团队。速度牵手张蒙多老师,撩撩美文,聊聊语言之美,以文字为媒,想去哪就去哪~






 推荐理由


一提到“背影”二字,我想,绝大部分人脑中的第一印象就是“父亲”,这或许源自朱自清的那篇散文——《背影》。


似乎父爱总是无言又厚重。年少时,面对父亲,孩子似乎有些惶恐,缩着肩膀应对父亲的问询,这略显沉闷又沉重的爱让人急于挣脱;年长了,面对父亲,亲子之间仍有着说不清道不明的隔膜,似熟悉的陌生人一般,有时竟无言以对。只有在某个特殊时刻,父与子,父与女之间深厚的情感才会突然迸发,就好似《背影》当中,二十岁的朱自清,极力忍下眼中晶莹的泪。


在距离西方感恩节两天之际,编者俗套地推荐《背影》这一篇散文给大家,不管你是青春年少或已年岁渐长,总有那么一个场景,你对父亲的爱被激发,像活火山一样突然爆发,感动于父母恩情。


原文欣赏

字数:1133词/ 1328字

建议阅读时间:8分钟

我与父亲不相见已二年余了,我最不能忘记的是他的背影。那年冬天,祖母死了,父亲的差使也交卸了,正是祸不单行的日子,我从北京到徐州,打算跟着父亲奔丧回家。到徐州见着父亲,看见满院狼藉的东西,又想起祖母,不禁簌簌地流下眼泪。父亲说,“事已如此,不必难过,好在天无绝人之路!” 


It is more than two years since I last saw father, and what I can never forget is the sight of his back. Misfortunes never come singly. In the winter of more than two years ago, grandma died and father lost his job. I left Beijing for Xuzhou to join father in hastening home to attend grandma’s funeral. When I met father in Xuzhou, the sight of the disorderly mess in his courtyard and the thought of grandma started tears trickling down my cheeks. Father said, “Now that things have come to such a pass, it’s no use crying. Fortunately, Heaven always leaves one a way out.”

回家变卖典质,父亲还了亏空;又借钱办了丧事。这些日子,家中光景很是惨淡,一半为了丧事,一半为了父亲赋闲。丧事完毕,父亲要到南京谋事,我也要回北京念书,我们便同行。


After arriving home in Yangzhou, father paid off debts by selling or pawning things. He also borrowed money to meet the funeral expenses. Between grandma’s funeral and father’s unemployment, our family was then in reduced circumstances. After the funeral was over, father was to go to Nanjing to look for a job and I was to return to Beijing to study, so we started out together.

到南京时,有朋友约去游逛,勾留了一日;第二日上午便须渡江到浦口,下午上车北去。父亲因为事忙,本已说定不送我,叫旅馆里一个熟识的茶房陪我同去。他再三嘱咐茶房,甚是仔细。但他终于不放心,怕茶房不妥帖;颇踌躇了一会。其实我那年已二十岁,北京已来往过两三次,是没有甚么要紧的了。他踌躇了一会,终于决定还是自己送我去。我两三回劝他不必去;他只说,“不要紧,他们去不好!” 


I spent the first day in Nanjing strolling about with some friends at their invitation, and was ferrying across the Yangtse River to Pukou the next morning and thence taking a train for Beijing on the afternoon of the same day. Father said he was too busy to go and see me off at the railway station, but would ask a hotel waiter that he knew to accompany me there instead. He urged the waiter again and again to take good care of me, but still did not quite trust him. He hesitated for quite a while about what to do. As a matter of fact, nothing would matter at all because I was then twenty and had already travelled on Beijing-Pukou Railway a couple of times. After some wavering, he finally decided that he himself would accompany me to the station. I repeatedly tried to talk him out of it, but he only said, “Never mind! It won’t do to trust guys like those hotel boys!” 

且我这样大年纪的人,难道还不能料理自己么?唉,我现在想想,那时真是太聪明了! 我们过了江,进了车站。我买票,他忙着照看行李。行李太多了,得向脚夫行些小费,才可过去。他便又忙着和他们讲价钱。我那时真是聪明过分,总觉他说话不大漂亮,非自己插嘴不可。但他终于讲定了价钱;就送我上车。他给我拣定了靠车门的一张椅子;我将他给我做的紫毛大衣铺好坐位。他嘱我路上小心,夜里警醒些,不要受凉。又嘱托茶房好好照应我。我心里暗笑他的迂;他们只认得钱,托他们直是白托! 


We entered the railway station after crossing the River. While I was at the booking office buying a ticket, father saw to my luggage. There was quite a bit of luggage and he had to bargain with the porter over the fee. I was then such a smart aleck that I frowned upon the way father was haggling and was on the verge of chipping in a few words when the bargain was finally clinched. Getting on the train with me, he picked me a seat close to the carriage door. I spread on the seat the brownish fur-lined overcoat he had got tailor made for me. He told me to be watchful on the way and be careful not to catch cold at night. He also asked the train attendants to take good tare of me. I sniggered at father for being so impractical, for it was utterly useless to entrust me to those attendants, who cared for nothing but money. Besides, it was certainly no problem for a person of my age to look after himself. Oh, when I come to think of it, I can see how smarty I was in those days! 

我说道,“爸爸,你走吧。”他望车外看了看,说,“我买几个橘子去。你就在此地,不要走动。”我看那边月台的栅栏外有几个卖东西的等着顾客。走到那边月台,须穿过铁道,须跳下去又爬上去。父亲是一个胖子,走过去自然要费事些。我本来要去的,他不肯,只好让他去。我看见他戴着黑布小帽,穿着黑布大马褂,深青布棉袍,蹒跚地走到铁道边,慢慢探身下去,尚不大难。可是他穿过铁道,要爬上那边月台,就不容易了。他用两手攀着上面,两脚再向上缩;他肥胖的身子向左微倾,显出努力的样子。这时我看见他的背影,我的泪很快地流下来了。   

I said, "Dad, you might leave now." But he looked out of the window and said, "I'm going to buy you some tangerines. You just stay here. Don't move around." I caught sight of several vendors waiting for customers outside the railings beyond a platform. But to reach that platform would require crossing the railway track and doing some climbing up and down. That would be a strenuous job for father, who was fat. I wanted to do that myself, but he stopped me, so I could do nothing but let him go. I watched him hobble towards the railway track in his black skullcap, black cloth mandarin jacket and dark blue cotton-padded cloth long gown. He had little trouble climbing down the railway track, but it was a lot more difficult for him to climb up that platform after crossing the railway track. His hand held onto the upper part of the platform, his legs huddled up and his corpulent body tipped slightly towards the left, obviously making an enormous exertion. While I was watching him from behind, tears gushed from my eyes.


我赶紧拭干了泪,怕他看见,也怕别人看见。我再向外看时,他已抱了朱红的橘子望回走了。过铁道时,他先将橘子散放在地上,自己慢慢爬下,再抱起橘子走。到这边时,我赶紧去搀他。他和我走到车上,将橘子一股脑儿放在我的皮大衣上。于是扑扑衣上的泥土,心里很轻松似的,过一会说,“我走了;到那边来信!”我望着他走出去。他走了几步,回过头看见我,说,“进去吧,里边没人。”等他的背影混入来来往往的人里,再找不着了,我便进来坐下,我的眼泪又来了。


I quickly wiped them away lest he or others should catch me crying. The next moment when I looked out of the window again, father was already on the way back, holding bright red tangerines in both hands. In crossing the railway track, he first put the tangerines on the ground, climbed down slowly and then picked them up again. When he came near the train, I hurried out to help him by the hand. After boarding the train with me, he laid all the tangerines on my overcoat, and patting the dirt off his clothes, he looked somewhat relieved and said after a while, "I must be going now. Don't forget to write me from Beijing!" I gazed after his back retreating out of the carriage. After a few steps, he looked back at me and said, "Go back to your seat. Don't leave your things alone." I, however, did not go back to my seat until his figure was lost among crowds of people hurrying to and fro and no longer visible. My eyes were again wet with tears.

近几年来,父亲和我都是东奔西走,家中光景是一日不如一日。他少年出外谋生,独力支持,做了许多大事。那知老境却如此颓唐!他触目伤怀,自然情不能自已。情郁于中,自然要发之于外;家庭琐屑便往往触他之怒。他待我渐渐不同往日。但最近两年的不见,他终于忘却我的不好,只是惦记着我,惦记着我的儿子。我北来后,他写了一信给我,信中说道,“我身体平安,惟膀子疼痛利害,举箸提笔,诸多不便,大约大去之期不远矣。”我读到此处,在晶莹的泪光中,又看见那肥胖的,青布棉袍,黑布马褂的背影。唉!我不知何时再能与他相见! 

In recent years, both father and I have been living an unsettled life, and the circumstances of our family going from bad to worse. Father left home to seek a livelihood when young and did achieve quite a few things all on his own. To think that he should now be so downcast in old age! The discouraging state of affairs filled him with an uncontrollable feeling of deep sorrow, and his pent-up emotion had to find a vent. That is why even mere domestic trivialities would often make him angry, and meanwhile he became less and less nice with me. However, the separation of the last two years has made him more forgiving towards me. He keeps thinking about me and my son. After I arrived in Beijing, he wrote me a letter, in which he says, “I’m all right except for a severe pain in my arm. I even have trouble using chopsticks or writing brushes. Perhaps it won’t be long now before I depart this life.” Through the glistening tears which these had brought to my eyes I again saw the back of father’s corpulent form in the dark blue cotton-padded cloth long gown and the black cloth mandarin jacket. Oh, how I long to see him again.  

1925年10月在北京

By Zhu Ziqing, October 1925

translated by Zhang Peiji

 文章赏析


文学作品之所以隽永,我想,遣词造句如何精炼优美在其次,最核心的魅力在于其中真挚的情感。只有感同身受了,这篇文字才能真正走进读者心里。

朱自清在《背影》这篇散文当中以口语自述当年的情景,一幕幕场景细节刻画到位,使人有身临其境之感。常言道,细节决定成败,行文亦如是。在写文章的时候,对周遭环境的描写,对主人公言行外貌的刻画都能让读者脱离旁观者的角色,进入到作者搭建的场景当中。例如本文对父亲穿着的描述:“戴着黑布小帽,穿着黑布大马褂,深青布棉袍”,如此一来,父亲的形象便具体起来。


撇开写作手法,《背影》这篇文章虽然只是朱自清个人对于父亲的记忆,但是凡是阅读过这篇文章的人,都能透过年轻的朱自清或者蹒跚的父亲看到自己。那个自以为聪明的儿子是我;那个因为琐屑迁怒于孩子的父亲是我;那个因为父亲迟钝的背影而落泪的孩子是我;那个因为成功买到了儿子或许需要的橘子而如释重负的父亲是我……种种片段,因为作者的真情流露,读者也产生了强烈的同理心和共鸣。


至于译文,文学翻译向来是难啃的骨头,因为文学作品的翻译更多地是考验译者的文学审美以及美感再现的能力。观之张培基先生的译文,他仍然沿用了口语化的表达,但在个别事件地点处,根据文意,适当增译。例如第一段的“那年冬天”译为“In the winter of more than two years ago”,增加了“more than two years ago”,这为读者理清了时间点。同样的例子还体现在第二段首“回家”一词,对应译文为“after arriving home in Yangzhou”。 其实,细微之处的增译与否并不妨碍全文的表达,但张培基先生仍然这样做了,实则是在响应“细节决定成败”这句话。